History chronicles how architectural and engineering advances often radically improve the society where the advances are employed. One important example was the Buttress and Flying Buttress - these assemblies markedly expanded construction types, materials used, and, the height of the structure conceived. Prior to this innovation, building heights were restricted to the dynamic properties of the materials utilized - and their ability to resist compression, and deflection that ensues. Collapse is the layman's term for structures that tempted height without the necessary components to abrogate gravity and impress stability. Taller buildings with numerous floors and residential units permitted a more efficient use of space. Apartment buildings provided many more people access to employment in cities. That transition spread change throughout the infrastructure and transportation needs for urban environments.
Architectural and engineering innovations also inspired great beauty and seemingly impossible designs. A culture/people is vaunted and recognized from the structures they create. The cathedrals of Europe are excellent examples of this maxim. The Cologne Cathedral is a unique example, and one, that challenged the engineering standards of its day. The construction commenced in 1248, stopped in 1473, and finished in the 19th century. It was the tallest building in the world in 1880 when finally completed. Additionally, this cathedral displays fine stone craft work and a dramatic and remarkable use of interior space - owed in part to what enabled the structure's height - the Flying Buttress. Enjoy the images and know - this was constructed with No Building Codes.